Record Details

Smith, K K
The use of the tongue and hyoid apparatus during feeding in lizards (Ctenosaura similis and Tupinambis nigropunctatus)
Journal of Zoology
Journal Article
Ctenosaura similis
The use of the tongue and hyoid is examined in cineradiographic and electromyographic investigations of feeding in two species of lizards, Ctenosaura similis (Iguanidae) and Tupinambis nigropunctatus (Teiidae). In both animals food is transported through the oral cavity by regular cycles of the tongue. Tongue movements correlate with jaw and hyoid movement. Similarities between the two animals in the use of the tongue in food transport, lapping, pharyngeal packing, and pharyngeal emptying are detailed. Mechanisms of tongue protrusion are examined and it is shown that the tongue in Tupinambis is relatively more protrusible than in Ctenosaura. This difference is complementary with data on the greater reliance of Tupinambis on the tongue as a sensory organ. Tupinambis further differs from Ctenosaura in possessing a greater mobility of the hyoid. In many features of tongue use in food transport, lizards resemble mammals, supporting postulations of a basic pattern of intra-oral food transport. However, whether this pattern can be attributed to convergence or a common, primitive neural pattern of control cannot be distinguished. Lizards lack two major characteristics of mammalian food transport: regular masticatory cycles and an internal swallowing mechanism.